She grew up in the home of her paternal grandmother. She adopted the surname Yourcenar — an almost anagram of Crayencour, having one fewer c — as a pen name ; in she also took it as her legal surname. She translated Virginia Woolf 's The Waves over a month period in After ten years spent in Hartford, Connecticutthey bought a house in Northeast Harbor, Maineon Mount Desert Islandwhere they lived for decades.
He was knighted in Gluck, whose father probably intended for him to continue in the family employment of forestry, at an early age showed a strong inclination toward music. In order to escape from disagreements with his father, the young Gluck left home probably about and, supporting himself by his music, made his way to Praguewhere he played in several churches, began university workand continued his musical studies.
He went to Vienna in the winter of — There he was discovered by a Lombard nobleman who took him to Milanwhere Gluck, apart from fulfilling his duties in the Melzi family chapel, spent four years studying composition with the Italian organist and composer Giovanni Battista Sammartinifrom whom he learned the new Italian style of instrumental music.
Probably six trio sonatas, each consisting of two movements with a minuet as conclusion and printed in London inwere the fruits of his studies with Sammartini in Milan. Until there then followed an annual succession of operas for this theatre: DemofoonteArsace in collaboration with G.
Lampugnani;Sofonisbaand Ippolito In these early works, of which mostly only fragments have survived, Gluck largely followed the existing Italian operatic fashion—melodic but never grand, charming without intensity.
Occasional intensely passionate outbursts and the beginning of characterization, however, foreshadowed the great dramatic composer he was to become.
The plan at first failed when, because of the political chaos caused by the Stuart rising, all theatres in London were closed before Gluck arrived in England.
Vanneschi, glorified the hero of the day, the Duke of Cumberland, after his victory at Culloden over the forces of Prince Charles Edward, the Stuart claimant to the British throne. Neither opera met with success. On March 25, shortly after the production of Artamene, Handel and Gluck together gave a concert in the Haymarket Theatre consisting of works by Gluck and an organ concerto by Handel, played by the composer.
Mingotti Travelling Opera company, he travelled via Hamburg to Copenhagen, where he composed the opera-serenade La contesa dei Numi in celebration of the birth of the heir to the Danish throne; the work in some respects foreshadows his later reform operas.
During the following two winters Gluck was in Prague, where he wrote Ezio and Issipile — Gluck later adopted his niece, Marianne. In Vienna, Gluck soon found a patron in the imperial field marshal Prince Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, who engaged him first as Konzertmeister of his orchestra and later as Kapellmeister.
The following year Vienna saw Il repastore, while the first performance of the opera Antigono was given during a visit to Rome. In Rome Gluck was created Knight of the Golden Spur, and after his return to Vienna he set to work to provide music for a number of French vaudeville comedies imported from Paris.
In these Parisian comedies the dialogue was spoken or sung in the manner of street songs, so-called timbres. His libretto for Orfeo ed Euridicepartly based on the theories and practices of such literary men as D.
In place of involved plots in the older manner, there was to be a simple, true, and natural action in the tradition of the classical drama; in place of courtly conventions, there was to be a purely human element. The chorus, again on the classical pattern, was to have equal importance with the main characters of the action, participating directly in the dramatic events.
As Gluck himself confessed, the impulse toward opera reform came from Calzabigi. But it must also be recognized that Calzabigi proceeded largely from the ideas put forward after by the Parisian poetic and literary circles mentioned above, while important new musical features e.
The opera-serenade La corona, written in the same year, was not performed owing to court mourning for the death of the emperor Francis I. In Florence on Feb.
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The French version of Alceste, which was produced during his third visit to Paris on April 23,also met with disapproval. Deeply distressed by this and the death of his niece, Marianne, Gluck left Paris in May and returned to Vienna.
In Paris, Gluck left both friends and enemies, who began to form two opposing parties: The struggle, which reached its full fury innever drew either Gluck or Piccinni into active participation in the dispute.Jean-Pierre Lafrance.
Born in Montreal, Quebec in , Jean-Pierre Lafrance started studying drawing and painting at the International School of Fine-Arts at sixteen years of age.
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