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Classical times[ edit ] Plato believed that children would never learn unless they wanted to learn. In The Republiche said, " The question concerned the educational value of pre-Christian classical thought: Education reforms did not become widespread until after organized schooling was sufficiently systematized to be 'reformed.
Modern education reforms are increasingly driven by a growing understanding of what works in education and how to go about successfully improving teaching and learning in schools.
Classical education is most concerned with answering the who, what, where, and when? Unless carefully taught, group instruction naturally neglects the theoretical "why" and "which" questions that strongly concern fewer students.
Classical education in this period also did not teach local vernacular languages and cultures. Instead it taught high-status ancient languages Greek and Latin and their cultures. This produced odd social effects in which an intellectual class might be more loyal to ancient cultures and institutions than to their native vernacular languages and their actual governing authorities.
England in the 19th century[ edit ] Before there were government-funded public schools, education of the lower classes was by the charity school, pioneered in the 19th century by Protestant organizations and adapted by the Roman Catholic Church and governments.
Because these schools operated on very small budgets and attempted to serve as many needy children as possible, they were designed to be inexpensive. The basic program was to develop "grammar" schools.
These taught only grammar and bookkeeping. This program permitted people to start businesses to make money, and gave them the skills to continue their education inexpensively from books. Joseph Lancaster The ultimate development of the grammar school was by Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell who developed the monitorial system.
Lancaster started as a poor Quaker in early 19th century London. Bell started the Madras School of India. The monitorial system uses slightly more-advanced students to teach less-advanced students, achieving student-teacher ratios as small as 2, while educating more than a thousand students per adult.
Lancaster promoted his system in a piece called Improvements in Education that spread widely throughout the English-speaking world. Discipline and labor in a Lancaster school were provided by an economic system. Scrip, a form of money meaningless outside the school, was created at a fixed exchange rate from a student's tuition.
Every job of the school was bid-for by students in scrip, with the largest bid winning. However, any student tutor could auction positions in his or her classes. Besides tutoring, students could use scrip to buy food, school supplies, books, and childish luxuries in a school store.
The adult supervisors were paid from the bids on jobs. The students were very clever at reducing their costs, and once invented, improvements were widely adopted in a school. For example, Lancaster students, motivated to save scrip, ultimately rented individual pages of textbooks from the school library, and read them in groups around music stands to reduce textbook costs.
Students commonly exchanged tutoring, and paid for items and services with receipts from "down tutoring. As a result, the older children acting as disciplinary monitors tended to become brutal task masters. Also, the schools did not teach submission to orthodox Christian beliefs or government authorities.
As a result, most English-speaking countries developed mandatory publicly paid education explicitly to keep public education in "responsible" hands. These elites said that Lancaster schools might become dishonest, provide poor education and were not accountable to established authorities.
Lancaster's supporters responded that any schoolchild could avoid cheats, given the opportunity, and that the government was not paying for the education, and thus deserved no say in their composition. Lancaster, though motivated by charity, claimed in his pamphlets to be surprised to find that he lived well on the income of his school, even while the low costs made it available to the poorest street-children.
Ironically, Lancaster lived on the charity of friends in his later life. Child-study[ edit ] Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been called the father of the child-study movement.
It has been said that Rousseau "discovered" the child as an object of study. Rousseau's principal work on education is Emile: Or, On Educationin which he lays out an educational program for a hypothetical newborn's education to adulthood.
Rousseau provided a dual critique of both the vision of education set forth in Plato's Republic and also of the society of his contemporary Europe and the educational methods he regarded as contributing to it; he held that a person can either be a man or a citizenand that while Plato's plan could have brought the latter at the expense of the former, contemporary education failed at both tasks.
He advocated a radical withdrawal of the child from society and an educational process that utilized the natural potential of the child and its curiosity, teaching it by confronting it with simulated real-life obstacles and conditioning it by experience rather than teaching it intellectually.
Horace Mann[ edit ] In the United States, Horace Mann — of Massachusetts used his political base and role as Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education to promote public education in his home state and nationwide.Tiffin University’s School of Business is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP).The ACBSP is a leading specialized accreditation body for business education supporting, celebrating and rewarding teaching excellence.
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