Imperial examination in Chinese mythology The imperial examination system in its classical manifestation is historically attested to have been established induring the Sui dynastywhen the emperor could call for tests to be administered. In the following Tang dynastytests were used on a small scale until the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian: However most government posts were still recruited through personal recommendation and connections to the court.
Essays of Michel de Montaigne An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paperan articlea pamphletand a short story.
Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal.
Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential mannerhumor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc.
Almost all modern essays are written in prosebut works in verse have been dubbed essays e. In some countries e. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.
The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other media beyond writing.
A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject.
Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference". These three poles or worlds in which the essay may exist are: The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description".
The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data".
In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.
Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays " In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne — was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as "attempts" to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing.
For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones.The eight-legged essay (Chinese: 八股文; pinyin: bāgǔwén) was a style of essay writing that had to be mastered to pass the imperial examinations during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
The eight-legged essay is named so . The eight-legged essay is named so because it was divided into eight sections. The term "essay" itself originates with Michel de Montaigne in , when he published Essays.
The term "essay" then described a genera of literary endeavor. Eight-legged essay 8-part essays that an aspiring Chinese civil servant had to compose, mainly based on a knowledge of Confucius and the Zhou classics Encomienda.
eight-legged essay (uncountable) (education, historical) A portion of the Chinese imperial examination that consisted of writing an essay consisting of eight parts. Translations [ edit ].
phasis is laid upon the writing of these [eight-legged] essays, because they are required in the government examinations for degrees, and because public opinion demands proficiency in them as essential to respectable scholarship” ( 4).
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