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Logitech X52 computer game controller Control panel of the Gemini spacecraft. Note two attitude indicators on panel, and the hand rotation controller at bottom of screen.
According to astronaut Virgil Grissom, the Mercury spacecraft flew the men, but the Gemini was the first true pilot's ship.
A "yaw" pivots the ship's nose to the left or right, spinning around the Z axis. A "pitch" pivots the ship's nose up or down, spinning around the Y axis. And a "roll" makes the ship spin like a old-style propeller prop, spinning around the X axis.
In most NASA vehicles, pushing the control grip left or right does roll, forwards and back does pitch, holding it upright and twisting left or right for yaw. In other words, imagine that there is a little model spacecraft glued on the top of the hand grip with the nose pointing android handwriting app with wrist protection.
Move the hand grip in such a way that the model's nose moves the way you want the spacecraft's nose to move. According to NASA human factor design, the hand controller should be set to operate according to the viewpoint of the operator.
So if you had a control for the pilot facing in the direction of the ship's nose, and a second control for an operator facing in the direction of the ship's tail, the "pitch" control for each operator will be the reverse of the other.
For instance a pull back for the nose controller will pitch the nose upwards, while a pull back for the tail controller will pitch the nose down.
This is because according to human factor design, the operator at the tail controller expects to pitch the tail upwards when they pull back the hand grip.
Translational Hand Controller In NASA designs, pushing the control up or down translates in the Z direction, left or right translates in the Y direction, push or pull translates in the X direction. Not shown is the "push-to-talk" button on the top of the T control. In the game Kerbal Space Programrotation and translation is handled by the computer keyboard.
Attitude Acutators The rotation and translation controls have to be hooked up to some mechanism that actually turns the spacecraft. These are the Attitude Acutators.
Translations are only done by attitude jets or thrust vectoring, never by flywheels. This is because converting rotary motion into linear motion is impossible the Dean Drive notwithstanding. Attitude Jets Attitude jets are tiny rocket engines mounted such that they can torque the spacecraft around to new orientations.
They are often mounted in tiny clusters, with each cluster having jets for yaw, pitch, and roll. The clusters are mounted so each of its jets is paired with an opposite jet on another cluster. It is also possible to do mild yaw and pitch by gimbaling the engine.
If you have two or more engines that are off-axis, gimbaling can also do a mild roll as well. Translations are only done by attitude jets, never by momentum wheels. As mentioned before this is because converting rotary motion into linear motion is impossible. If you need to changes the ship's attitude rapidly, you should look into thrust vectoring.
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The Mercury space capsule and Gemini re-entry module both used groupings of nozzles to provide attitude control. The thrusters were located off their center of gravitythus providing a torque to rotate the capsule.
The Gemini capsule was also capable of adjusting its re-entry course by rolling, which directed its off-center lifting force. The Mercury thrusters used a hydrogen peroxide monopropellant which turned to steam when forced through a tungsten screen, and the Gemini thrusters used hypergolic mono-methyl hydrazine fuel oxidized with nitrogen tetroxide.
The Gemini spacecraft was also equipped with a hypergolic Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System, which made it the first manned spacecraft with translation as well as rotation capability. In-orbit attitude control was achieved by firing pairs of eight pound-force N thrusters located around the circumference of its adapter module at the extreme aft end.
Lateral translation control was provided by four pound-force N thrusters around the circumference at the forward end of the adaptor module close to the spacecraft's center of mass.
Two forward-pointing pound-force N thrusters at the same location, provided aft translation, and two pound-force N thrusters located in the aft end of the adapter module provided forward thrust, which could be used to change the craft's orbit.
Roll uses jets on opposite sides, while Pitch uses jets on the same side. Rotation Translation Unlike rotation jets, the Translation jets are located at the center of gravity. Except for fore and aft, so they have to be in pairs balancing at the center of gravity. The negative pitch jets are in front of the center of gravity, the positive pitch jets are behind the center of gravity Image courtesy of NASA Hop David has an exceedingly clever arrangement of attitude jets on his Tetrahedral spaceship concept.
This takes the "jet on a long lever arm" arrangement of Babylon-5 Starfuries to the logical ultimate. Tetrahedral Spaceship Starfury from Babylon 5. Note attitude jet burning in upper right corner.The DHS Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (DAAT) list contains homeland security related acronyms, abbreviations, and terms that can be found in DHS documents, reports, and the FEMA Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (FAAT) list.
The DHS Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (DAAT) list contains homeland security related acronyms, abbreviations, and terms that can be found in DHS documents, reports, and the FEMA Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms (FAAT) list.
Vol.7, No.3, May, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Study on Bilinear Scheme and Application to Three-dimensional Convective Equation (Itaru Hataue and Yosuke Matsuda).
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